Style guides[ edit ] Early style guides for typesetting used a wider space between sentences than between words—"traditional spacing", as shown in the illustration to the right. The edition of the Chicago Manual of Style used em spaces between sentences in its text;  by the edition it had changed to single sentence spacing for both manuscript and print. By the s, the United Kingdom's Hart's Rules  had shifted to single sentence spacing.
To test any of the examples in this section, cut and paste the examples and insert the following line to see what's going on: Details of the String Type The string in PHP is implemented as an array of bytes and an integer indicating the length of the buffer.
It has no information about how those bytes translate to characters, leaving that task to the programmer. Functions that return no textual data — for instance, arbitrary data read from a network socket — will still return strings.
Given that PHP does not dictate a specific encoding for strings, one might wonder how string literals are encoded. The answer is that string will be encoded in whatever fashion it is encoded in the script file.
However, this does not apply if Zend Multibyte is enabled; in that case, the script may be written in an arbitrary encoding which is explicity declared or is detected and then converted to a certain internal encoding, which is then the encoding that will be used for the string literals.
Note that there are some constraints on the encoding of the script or on the internal encoding, should Zend Multibyte be enabled — this almost always means that this encoding should be a compatible superset of ASCII, such as UTF-8 or ISO Note, however, that state-dependent encodings where the same byte values can be used in initial and non-initial shift states may be problematic.
Of course, in order to be useful, functions that operate on text may have to make some assumptions about how the string is encoded. Some functions assume that the string is encoded in some any single-byte encoding, but they do not need to interpret those bytes as specific characters.
This is case of, for instance, substrstrposstrlen or strcmp. Another way to think of these functions is that operate on memory buffers, i. Other functions are passed the encoding of the string, possibly they also assume a default if no such information is given.
This is the case of htmlentities and the majority of the functions in the mbstring extension. Others use the current locale see setlocalebut operate byte-by-byte. This is the case of strcasecmpstrtoupper and ucfirst.
This means they can be used only with single-byte encodings, as long as the encoding is matched by the locale. If it is encoded in UTF-8, the correct result will not be returned and the resulting string may or may not be returned corrupted, depending on the current locale. Finally, they may just assume the string is using a specific encoding, usually UTF This is the case of most functions in the intl extension and in the PCRE extension in the last case, only when the u modifier is used.
Ultimately, this means writing correct programs using Unicode depends on carefully avoiding functions that will not work and that most likely will corrupt the data and using instead the functions that do behave correctly, generally from the intl and mbstring extensions.
However, using functions that can handle Unicode encodings is just the beginning. No matter the functions the language provides, it is essential to know the Unicode specification.
For instance, a program that assumes there is only uppercase and lowercase is making a wrong assumption.Practice math problems like Double Facts within 10 with interactive online worksheets for 1st Graders.
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